VIKTOR MISIANO
Born: December 31, 1957, Moscow, Russia (former USSR)
Present address: III Tverskaia-Yamskaia 26, apt.18
Moscow, Russia 125047
tel./fax: 7 095 251 42 90 mobile: 7 926 207 01 99 E-mail: martmag@online.ru

WORK EXPERIENCE:
Art critic/writer/editor
Founder and Chief Editor of Manifesta Journal. Journal of Contemporary Curatorship, Amsterdam-Ljubljana, January 2003 - present
Founder and Chief Editor of " " ("Moscow Art Magazine"), Moscow, July 1993-present
Contributing editor "Flash Art" (Milano, Italy), January 1990 - present
Moscow correspondent for "Contemporanea. International Art Magazine (Turin - New York), December 1988 - March 1991

Independent art exhibition curator:
ART FROM CENTRAL ASIA, Center for Contemporary Art Ujazdowski Castle, Warsaw (Poland), February-April 2006
ART FROM CENTRAL ASIA. A CONTEMPORAY ARCHIVE, Central Asia Pavilion, La Biennale di Venezia, Venezia (Italy), June-November 2005
7 SINNS. LJUBJANA-MOSCOW (in collaboration with Zdenka Badovinac and Igor Zabel), Museum of Modern Art Ljubljana, December 2004-February 2005
CINEMA (Porolon/Sergey Shekhovziov), 26 Sao Paulo Biennal, Russian Representation, Sao Paulo, Brazil, October - 2004 
MOSCOW-BERLIN. 1950-2000 (member of the team), Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, September 2003-January 2004; Historical Museum, Moscow, April-June 2004
THE RETURNE OF THE ARTIST (Sergey Bratkov, V. Dubossarsky&A. Vinogradov, Valery Koshliakov, Constantin Zvezdochetov), Russian Pavilion, La Biennale di Venezia, Venezia (Italy), June-November 2003
HORIZONS OF REALITY (in collaboration with Bart De Baere, Liliane Dewachter, Ksenia Kistiakovskaya), MuHKA, Antwerpen, March-June 2003
ICONOGRAFIAS METROPOLITANAS (curator of the section Moscow), 25 Sao Paulo Biennal, Sao Paulo, Brazil, March-June 2002 
RUSSIAN MADNESS (in collaboration with Robert Wilson), Valencia Biennial, June-October 2001
WINDOWS (Oleg Kulik), Pavillion of Yugoslavia (co-curator), La Biennale di Venezia, (Italy), June 2001 (in preparation)
ON THE SIDE OF THE SCREEN. VIDEO OF THE 90s (with J. Bakshtein), Central Haus of the Artst, Art-Moscow Programme, April 2001
LE TRIBU DELLARTE (section FLUXUS, EVENTS&HAPPENINGS), Galleria Comunale darte Moderna e Contemporanea, Roma (Italy), April-July 2001
2000+ ARTEAST Collection. The Art of the Eastern Europe in Dialogue with the West (From the 1960s to the Present. Exibition of Works for an Emerging Collection) (consultant), Moderna Galerija, Ljubljana (Slovenia), June - July 2000
LAUTRE MOITIE DE LEUROPE, Galerie National du Jeu de Paume, Paris (France), February 2000 - June 2000. 
EUROPARTE (Oleg Kulik Deep into Russia). Fondazione Bevilaqua La Masa (XLVII Biennale di Venezia), Venice (Italy), June-October 1997 
MANIFESTA-1. Pan-European Art Manifestation, Rotterdam (Netherlands), June-September 1996 
INTERPOL, Fargfabriken Center for Contemporary Art, Stockholm (Sweden), January-Febrary 1996 
ONE-MAN SHOW. Vadim Fishkin, Mala Galerija-Moderna Glerija, Ljubljana (Slovinia), December 1995
CONJUGATION. Moscow Art Scene Today, KRAFTEMESSEN, Kunstlerwerkstatten, Munich (Germany), June-July 1995 
...REASON IS SOMETHING THE WORLD MUST OBTAIN WETHER IT WANTS TO OR NOT... (Eugeny Asse, Dimitri Gutoff, Vadim Fishkin), Russian Pavillion, La Biennale di Venezia, Venezia (Italy), June-October 1995.
"UBERGANGE" (Alexandre Brener, Vadim Fishkin), Galerea Medium, Bratislava (Slovakia). May - June 1994 
IDENTITY-SELFHOOD, Ateneum, Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki (Finland). November 1993-January 1994
APT-ART INT (International exhibitions in Moscow apartments). Franz West, Heimo Zoebernik, "IRWIN"/"Neu Slovenische Kunst", Haralampi Oroschakow, Edward Winkelhofer, Jak Sal, Rainer Granahl, "Leona" group and others. Moscow. January 1991 - present.
TRIO ACUSTICO (D. Gutoff, J. Leiderman, A. Osmolovski). Centre pour la Creation Contemporaine, Tours (France). January-March 1993
LES LIAISONS DANGEREUSES (Atrist and Critic in the situation of cultural multiplicity). Contemporary Art Centre, Moscow (Russia). September- October 1992
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES: PRODUCTION OF A CHEF-D'OEUVRE. III Istambul International Biennial (Russian pavillion), Istambul (Turkey). October-November 1992
MOLTEPLICI CULTURE. Itinerari dell'arte in un mondo che cambia. Museo del Folclore, Rome (Italy). May-June 1992 
EXERCISES ESTHETIQUES. Moscow State Museum of Ceramics and "Estate Kuskovo of XVIII c.". Moscow (Russia). September 1991
ART OF THE EXPEDITION. Expedition Corps of "The Letter Reader Society". Moscow, Exhibition Hall "Sadovniki", Moscow (Russia). October 1990
MOSCA - MOSCOW - MOSKVA' 90 (Five Contemporary Young Soviet Artists), Sala Boccioni, Milano (Italy). May 1990
MOSCOW- THE THIRD ROME (Seven Contemporary Soviet Artists), Sala Uno, Rome (Italy). May - September 1989
MOSCOW - VIENNA - NEW YORK. Messe Palast, Vienna (Austria). October - December 1989

Museum curator/ Institutions:
Moderna Galerija, Ljubljana (Slovenia). - Member of International Advisory Board, Summer 1996 - present 
Russian Pavilion in Venice Biennial. - Commissar (responsible curator), 1994-1995, 2002-2003
Soros Center for Contemporary Arts - Moscow. Member of the Board. January 1993-1995 
Contemporary Art Centre (CAC). Moscow. Russia. - Curator (Director). September 1992 - July 1997
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow. - Chief of Modern and Contemporary Art Department. January 1989 - January 1990
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow. - Curator of Contemporary Art. June 1980 - December 1988

Teaching Experience:
Course in contemporary art in The Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow, 1997/1998
Visiting professor in Center for Curatorial Studies and Art in Contemporary Culture, Bard College, USA, 1997

Lectures in:
Appel School for Curatorship, Amsterdam, December 2004
High School for Economy, Moscow, 2003 
Russian State University for the Humanities (RGGU), September 1997-April 1998 Royal College of Fine Arts (GB), London, November 1997 
Academy of Fine Arts, Stockholm. January 1996
Advaced Course in Visual Arts, Fondazione Antonio Ratti, Como (Italy), July 1995 
L'Ecole du Magazin, Centre d'Art Contemporain, Grenoble. March 1993
Ecole National Superieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris. March 1991
School of Visual Arts, New York. May 1990
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts educational program, Moscow. 1980-1989
Moscow State University, Union of Soviet Artists and Independent Academy of Arts. 1980-1992

Organiser of Educational and Creative programs in CAC, Moscow:
Curator Development Workshop, October 1993-June 1994 
Visual Anthropology Workshop, October 1993-June 1994 
New Media Technologies Workshop (in collaboration with Soros CCA, Moscow and ATI, Moscow), February 1993-June 1995

Education 
Ph.D. in Theory of Art, 1989. National Institute of Advanced Art Studies, Moscow. Doctoral thesis "The Poetics of Metaphysical Painting (G. De Chirico, G. Morandi, C. Carra)" 
M.A. in Theory of Art, 1980. Moscow State University, Department of Theory and History of Arts. Masters thesis "Mannerist Theory of Arts (XVIth c.)"

Languages 
Native Russian, also fluent in English, Italian and French. Working knowledge of German and Spanish
Awards
Art Critic of the Year Award (given by "Dekorativnoe Iskusstvo" Magazine and Credo Bank).Moscow.December 1991.

Publications
Books:
(Other and Diverse). , ., 2004

Cultural Contradictions of Tusovka. CIP, Ljubljana, 2001
Visual Anthropology Workshop. 1993-1994. Documentation of a project/Project of a Documentation. MAM, Moscow. 2000 
INTERPOL. The ArtExhibition which Divided East and West. IRWIN-MAM, Ljubljana, 2000 
Die Zeitgenossische Photographie in der Sovietunion (Contemporary Photography in the Soviet Union), Edition Stemmle, Zurich, 1988
Kunstler in Moskau. Die neue Avantgarde, Edition Stemmle, Zurich, 1988

Articals:
Moscow, Art Forum International, NY, December 2005, p. 236-237
The Ethics of a View: Notes on Boris Mikhailov, in: Afteral, London, 2005, issue 12, pp.73-79 
The First Moscow Biennial The Mirror of the Russian Liberal Reforms (an interview), IDEA, Cluj, Romania, issue 21, 2005, pp.62-67 
From an Existential Individualist to Solidarity. (Vom esistenziellen Individualisten zum Solidaritat) . Colective Creativity (catalogue), Kunsthale Friericianum, Kassel, 2005, p. 176-184
Reflexive Fetishism of Anatoly Osmolovsky / ), Anatoly Osmolovsky/ . The way Political Positions Turn into Form/ (catalogue), Stella Arts Gallery, Moscow, 2004, p. 1-6
Russian Art Change of Coordinates, System of Coordinates Russian Art Today (catalogue), Museum of Contemporary Art, Zagreb, 2004, 147-163 (another version: Autonomia frente a la realidad, EXIT Express. Periodico mensual de Informacion y Debate sobre Arte. #7. Novembre 2004, p. 8-11; Lautonomia dellarte, o la rivoluzione alle porte/The Autonomy of Art, or Revolution is at the Gates, Abitare, 444, Novembre/November 2004, p. 236-239) 
Das Hamburg-project: abschied von der disziplinaren ordung, MOSCOW-BERLIN. 1950-2000. CHRONIK, Nicolai, Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 2003, S. 155-158 (and in: , #48/49, 2003, pp. 58-63)
An Analysis of Tusovka. Post-Soviet Art of the 90s. Art in Europe. 1990-2000 (edited by Gianfranco Maraniello).SKIRA editore, Milano. 2002
Lamitie comme engagement. Europe de lEst: projects confidentiels, Lengagement. Actes du symposiumde lASSICIATION International des Critiques dArt (Les Abbattois, Toulouse, 15-16 juin 2000), Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2002, p.81-93
Moscow: A City That is More Than a Country, Cidades. 25 Bienal de Sao Paulo. Iconografias Metropolitanas (catalogue), Sao Paulo, 2002, p. 176-181
Curator-Moderator, Words of Wisdom. A Curators Vade Mecum on Contemporary Art (edited by Carin Kuoni), New York: Independent Curators International, 2001 
Oleg Kulik: Windows, House&Windows, Yugoslav Pavilion (catalogue), La Biennale di Venezia, 2001
: , , n.12, 2000, . 88-95 (and as Strategies of Display from Modernization toward De-Modernization, in: Strategies of Presentation 2&3, World of Art Year 5&6, SCCA-Ljubljana, 2004, 65-72)
Interview with Viktor Misiano (Ursa Jurman&Sabina Salamon), Fokus ...Manifesta in our Backyard, Platforma SCCA, n.2, Ljubljana, December 2000, p. 12-16 
Reflexive Subject and His Art ( ), Komod (Yekaterinburg), n. 9, 2000, p. 9-13
Vertrauensgemeinschaft (Confidential Community), Cooperativ. Kunstdialoge Ost-West (catalogue). Stadthaus Ulm, Ulm, 2000, pp. 11-23
De la pseudo-politique a la postpolitique, Lautre moitie de lEurope (catalogue), Reunion des Musees Nationaux, Galerie National du Jeu de Paume, Paris, 2000, p. 77-85
Still there is War, Still Hope Exists (paper), MARS, Year XI, 1999, n1-2, pp. 38-47 
Cultural Contradictions of Tusovka, Frakcia, n.14, Zagreb, 1999, pp. 82-97 (and in: Umelec, 7, 1999, pp. 34-35, , n. 25, 1999, pp. 39-43)
The Institutionalisation of Friendship, Transnacionala (catalogue), Ljubljana, 1999, pp. 182-192 
Curator without a system, ARCO noticias, Madrid, 1998, n.12, pp. 31-32 (and in: "After the Wall. Art and Culture in post-Communist Europe" (catalogue), Moderma Museet, Stockholm. 1999, p.137)
Collapce of Liberal-Chic. Flash Art, Vol. XXXI, ?203, November-December 1998, pp.43, 56
Radical Quotidian, Every Day, 11th Biennale of Sydney(catalogue), Sydney, 1998, pp.28-32
Catastrophe, Futuro, Passato, Presente. La Biennale di Venezia (Catalogue), Electa, 1997 (and in: Frakcija, ?9, Zagreb, 1998, pp. 86-87; , , vol. X, Obscuri Viri, Moscow, 1997)
Interpol. An Analysis, Beyond Ethics and Aesthetics, Sun, Nijmengen, 1997 (as : Interpol: The Apology of Defeat, Art Discourse-97. Seminar on the Contemporary Art Theory and practices, Almaty, 1998; and in Art Planet. A global view of Art Criticism, vol.1, n.0, 1999; and in: Interpol. The Art Exibition which Divided East and West (ed. by E. Cufer and V. Misiano), Ljubljana, IRWIN-Moscow Art Magazine, 2000)
Response to an Open Letter to the Art Word. Flash Art International, n.188, May-June, 1996; SIKSI. The Nordic Art Review, n. 2, Summer 1966; Primary Documents. A Sourcebook for Eastern and Central European Art since the 1950s. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2002
Passions pour lhistoire. Lart russe, 1980-1995. Face a lhistoire. 1933-1996 (Catlogue). Centre G. Pompidou. Flammarion. Paris, 1997
Esplendor y miseria de la "intelligentsia". Letra International. Madrid, 1997, n.48, pp.35-39.
Russian Reality. The End of Intelligentsia. Flash Art. International Edition. Summer 1996, pp.104-107.
Viktor Misianos Responce to An Open Letter to the Art World. SIKSI, XI, ?2, Summer 1996, pp. 80-81 
Choosing To Be Jewish. Russian Jewish Artists in Century of Change. 1890-1990. (Catalogue). Jewish Museum, New York. Prestel. Munich-New York. 1995 
Introductory Notes to Vadim Fishkins One-Men Show. Vadim Fishkin (catalogue). Mala Galerija. Moderna Galerija, Ljubljana, 1995
Yuri Leidermans negative ontology. Yuri leiderman. La route Jura-Paris (catalogue). CCC/Galerie Michel Rein, Tours, France, 1995
Fatal Strategies. No Mans Land (Catalogue). Copenhagen Contemporary art Center NICOLAJ, Copenhagen,1995, pp. 69-85. 
AEC: (AESs poetics: To Speak about Body). (Body Stace) (catalogue). Moscow, 1995, p. 30-32.
From Urbs repressivum to Urbs paranoicum. Urbanaria (Catalogue), Ljubljana (Slovenia), 1994. 
? ? ? (Who? Whom?When?). (Moscow Art Magazine), Moscow, 1994, n. 3, p. 5 (and as: Kdo? Koga? Kam? (Who? Whom? When?). Maska, Ljubljana, 1994, n. IV,3,4,5, pp. 26-27.)
(Introduction Without Title). (Conformists). Alexandr Brener, Bogdan Mamonov (Catalogue), Moscow, 1994 
Die Kuratorenwerkstatt. Bellow Papers". Internationale Strategien. Vol.1, Jahrgans 1994, No.2 p.139
(Russian Collection of the European Bank. (Moscow Art Magazine), Moscow, 1993, n. 1, p.12
(Drowing Venice). (Moscow Art Magazine), Moscow, 1993, n. 1, p.34-37 
Anatoli Osmolovski: Clown Patetico. Flash Art. Edizione Italiana. Vol.XXVI, Summer 1993, p.96
Moskovska umelecka scena - afekty a utopia. "Ubergenge" (Catalogue), Bratislava. 1994 pp.13-15
Cool Reflections II. Identity-selfhood (Catalogue). Helsinki. 1993. pp.7-9
(Interview of Viktor Misiano with Valery Aisenberg). . Songs (catalogue). Moscow. Ap ,1992, pp.3-22
... ( The Art after...). Collection d'Art Contemporain. Rinaco (catalogue). Moscow. 1993 
""("Regina" Fenomenon). . C 1990- 1992 (catalogue). Moscow, Regina. 1993, pp. 2-5
Cool Reflections. Mec . , 1993 N 4 . 32-34
Faraway to Ideology. Flash Art. International Edition, Vol. XXY, n.6, October 1992, pp.70-72
Anatolij Shuravlev. Anatolij Shuravlev (catalogue). Kunstler Haus, Bethanien,1992. 
. (Aesthetisation of Erotic, Erotisation of Aesthetics). o , Moscow, n.7, 1992, pp.45-49
Elaimellisia Intohimoja (Bastial Passions). Taide, Helsinki, 1992, n.4, pp.48-50.
Pictor Post-Historicus. Arnold Mesches. E.M.Donahue Gallery, New.York., 1991, pp. 1-7
Old Fascioned Pashion. Flash Art. International Edition, Vol. XXIV, Nr. 158, May-June 1991, pp.110-113
Evghenij Mitta, Aidan Salakhova. Flash Art. Edizione Italiana, Anno XXIV, Nr. 163, Estate 1991, pp. 74-76
Andrej Roiter. Andrej Roiter (catalogue). Amsterdam, Aschenbach Gallery, 1990. 
Perz. Kunstforum. Bd. 106, Maerz/April, 1990, pp. 191-192
The Regeneration. Made in Formani. Current Soviet Avant-Garde Art (Catalogue). City Gallery, Melbourne, 1990, pp. 4-5
Ars Post Mortem. Flash Art. International Edition, Vol. XXIII, N 153, Summer 1990, pp. 130-133
. ? (Underground Yesterday, and What About Today?). , 1990, N 10, pp. 21-24
Moscou - Paris, nouvelle rencontre (Moscow - Paris, The New Meeting). Perestroik' Art: les couleurs de la transparence, Paris, 1990
" " ". . (From "The Metaphysical Painting" to the "Tonal Period." The Poetics of Giorgio Morandi's art). , Moscow, 1990
. (Giorgio De Chirico and the Problem of Artistic Tradition). . ... Moscow,1990 
" "("Zone of Life"). , N.1, 1990
L'arte sovietica alla ricerca di una nuova identita (Soviet Art on its Way to a New Identity). Artisti russi contemporani (catalogue), Florence - Prato, 1990
Marc Chagall. Arte e Dossier (Dossier Chagall) , Florence, N.39, October, 1989
The Carnival of Power. Contemporanea. International Art Magazine, Torino - New York, N.14, February 1990
Die Poetik der Schwerlosigkeit (The Poetics of Weightlessness). Moskau-Wien- New York. Kunt zur Zeit (catalogue), Vienna, REMA print, 1989
Photographers Without Photography. Contemporanea. International Arts Magazine, Torino - New York, N.10, September 1989
10+10. Contemporary Soviet and American Painters. Henry N..Abrams Inc., New York and Aurora Publishers, Leningrad,1989
Unorthodox Russians. Contemporanea. International Art Magazine, Torino - New York, N.8, June 1989
L'Occident a l'interieur de soi-meme (The West Inside Me). Art-Press, Paris, N.135, April 1989
Arts and Letters. Interview with Dmitry Prigov. Contemporanea. International Art Magazine, Torino - New York, January/February 1989
Al fin nos descubrieron! (Finally We Are Discovered!). El Pais, Madrid, July 16, 1988 
Les chocs de la perestrojka (The Shock of Perestroika). Les Cahiers du Musee National d'Art Modern, Paris, N.26, 1988
La photographie d'art sovietique des annes 70-80 (The Artistic Photography of the Seventies and Eighties). Un regard sur la photographie sovietique contemporaine, Paris, Editions de comtoir de la photographie, 1988
Visage de Russie (The Image of Russia). Le Monde, Photo, Supplement of N.13607, October 1988
La photographie sovietique en quete d'identite (Soviet Photography in Search of Identity). Art-Press, Paris, N.130,1988
Pat und Patachon der moskauer Avantgarde . (Pat and Patachon of the Moscow Avant-Garde). Grazer Kunstverein (catalogue), Graz, 1988
Dingwards. Objekt in der sowietischen gegenwarts Kunst .(Toward the Thing. Object in Soviet Contemporary Art). Bildende Kunst, Berlin, Heft 9, 1988
Back in the USSR. Contemporanea. International Art Magazine, Torino - New York, N.1, 1988
Erik Bulatov und die Moskauer Schule (Erik Bulatov and the Moscow School). Eric Bulatov (catalogue), Zurich and London, Parkett Verlag, 1988 
Ein "Kindergarten" fur Kinder vorgerueckten Alters (A "Kindergarten" for Aged Children). Durch, Graz, N.2, 1987 
. . (From Craft to Art. Portraits by Moissey Nappelbaum). . Moscow, N.11, 1986
. (The Object in the Art of Giorgio Morandi). . .A.C., Moscow, 1986

Alexander Sokolov
Preamble

Video (WMV) - 21 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 4 Mb
Viktor Misiano
Video (WMV) - 72 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 20 Mb
Georg Schoellhammer
Video (WMV) - 83 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 24 Mb
Ekaterina Degot
Video (WMV) - 62 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 14 Mb
Daria Pyrkina (questions)
Video (WMV) - 2,6 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 3 Mb
Anton Vidokle
Video (WMV) - 24 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 7 Mb
Joseph Backstein
Video (WMV) - 55 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 14 Mb
  20 May
Alexander Sokolov
Preamble

Video (WMV) - 31 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 9 Mb
Krassimira Loukitcheva
Video (WMV) - 67 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 14 Mb
Krassimira Loukitcheva
(questions)

Video (WMV) - 20 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 6 Mb
Ekaterina Andreeva
Video (WMV) - 31 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 8 Mb
Olia Lialina
Video (WMV) - 76 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 18 Mb
Ludmila Bredikhina
Video (WMV) - 22 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 6 Mb
  Round table
Alexander Sokolov
Preamble

Video (WMV) - 12 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 3,5 Mb
  Part 1
Anatoly Osmolovsky
Video (WMV) - 22 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 6 Mb
  Olga Kiseleva
Video (WMV) - 12 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 3,5 Mb
  Mikhail Sidlin
Video (WMV) - 10 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 3 Mb
  Ekaterina Degot
Video (WMV) - 18 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 5 Mb
  Part 2
Vlad Safronov,
Olga Kiseleva,
Anatoly Osmolovsky,
Ekaterina Degot,
Mikhail Sidlin,
Vera Dazhina

Video (WMV) - 18 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 5 Mb
  Ekaterina Degot,
Mikhail Sidlin,
Vera Dazhina

Video (WMV) - 10 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 3 Mb
  Katy Choukhrov
Video (WMV) - 6 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 1,5 Mb
  Anatoly Osmolovsky, Ekaterina Degot
Video (WMV) - 6 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 1,5 Mb
  Vera Dazhina
Video (WMV) - 9 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 2,5 Mb
  Daria Pyrkina
Video (WMV) - 4,5 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 1 Mb
  Anatoly Osmolovsky, Olga Kiseleva,
Stas Shamanov

Video (WMV) - 11 Mb
Audio (MP3) - 3 Mb